This type of types are known as dual-goal (meat and egg) types, although variations in adult human anatomy dimensions are present (Desk step one)

This type of types are known as dual-goal (meat and egg) types, although variations in adult human anatomy dimensions are present (Desk step one)

The purpose of so it tasks are to review the effect of reproduce and you will ages into the eggs creation plus the egg outside and you may inner quality during the four Italian dual-objective types , initially and lots of days later than simply earliest weeks installing craft one to happened, respectively, at the end of june/beginning of fall as well as in winter season, under variable ecological standards.

2.step one. Pet and you can Rearing Conditions

Five Italian chicken types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you may Robusta Lionata (RL), was basically thought towards data. One’s body lbs away from mature lady try 1.twenty five kg inside PP, dos.30 kilogram into the Emergency room and you can step 3.05 kg inside RM and you will RL. The source ‘s the Veneto region (Italy): PP is actually a classic local breed; the resource is actually old returning to the fresh XIX century, however, no right study into their hereditary supply exists. Another breeds are formulated in Veneto for the 1950s: the newest Er reproduce comes from Sussex (tinted eggshell breed) and you can Rhode Isle (brown eggshell breed) types, whereas into RM and you will RL breeds, Brownish Orpington and White The united states, several brownish eggshell types were used . In addition to the adult lbs, these types disagree within plumage colour: it’s wonderful inside the PP, Emergency room suggests erminate plumage, RM plumage is predominantly light which have black extremities in a lot of regions of your own human body, black colored feathers regarding primaries and you may end and RL suggests a beneficial tawny plumage that have black colored feathers out of primaries and you may tail. Most of the breeds (Profile S1) show unmarried comb and put tinted eggshell eggs (Profile S2).

dos. Materials and methods

Wild birds regarding for every reproduce hatched at the same time (last half off e ranch of your Heart having Chicken Biodiversity Conservation throughout the Veneto region (it routinely offers this new rearing of these breeds also when it comes to egg design getting incubation and you will brooding), in the North Italy (45°02?53? N), from hatching towards pubertal decades and on laying period, and that already been about prevent of summer on the start of trip (Contour step 1), with regards to the breed. Serving, rearing requirements (photoperiod, temperature) and you may prophylaxis methods was basically an identical to your trГ¤ffa lokala Libanesiska kvinnor four types, since regarding hatching for the end of learned months, which was in , on 53 months of age. The new freshly hatched chicks was basically kept inside for the first 4 days of lifestyle, at the a green temperatures decreasing out-of 32 so you can 24 °C, under infra-yellow rays lighting fixtures, to the litter. In the 1.5 weeks old, the fresh wild birds got free usage of backyard places, out-of springtime so you’re able to fall and cold weather. For every breed (sixty hens) got free access to outside (5 meters 2 /bird) area (equipped with linear drinkers), where hens resided from day to night, in order to interior (4 hens/m dos ) space (wood shavings and straw litter, having perches and you can round feeders), mainly used for putting egg (cumulative nests) as well as evening; the area (indoor and you may outdoor) open to for each breed are split up by netting.

At the outset of laying (at about 22 days old towards the breed having earlier start of laying), within the September–October, according to reproduce, new photoperiod are absolute and you may decreasing, with regards to the seasons and also the geographic status of your own demonstration route inside Northern Italy (an average of, 12L:12D), and for the second several months (out of 38 months of age, away from December so you’re able to 53 months old), phony light is slowly improved (in the interior area, incandescent light bulb, in the 60 lux) to track down an effective photoperiod from 14L:10D. This new photoperiod are managed because of the a timekeeper, plus it is actually achieved by flipping on the new white one hour ahead of sunrise and you can turning off they an hour immediately following sunset. The newest external ecological heat are 10 ± step 3.4 °C and you will 11 ± step 3.0 °C, respectively, into basic (right away off October into avoid away from November) and also the second (right from the start away from January on the end regarding February) laying symptoms, in the event the research towards the give show and you will eggs quality have been collected. The new dogs were given offer libitum industrial nourishes based on the emotional stage (three diversified commercial nourishes in the expanding several months). To your earliest installing phase (26–33 weeks old, significantly less than coming down sheer photoperiod), in the event the breeds come laying, the latest birds were given a professional pelleted provide (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.8 MJ/kg, California = step one.1%, P = 0.6%) and you can maize (PG = nine.1%, Me personally = thirteen.7 MJ/kg), in the a proportion of 1:step one. It is worthy of recalling one to, at that age, precisely the dual-mission and you may tinted eggshell breeds showed an adjustable onset of putting and you will egg manufacturing rates, whereas the newest hens belonging to the almost every other breeds of the newest Preservation Heart to have Biodiversity and you will hatched meanwhile of one’s studied breeds, such as the white eggshell types, don’t initiate installing (Padovana breed) or they showed a very scant laying craft (Polverara reproduce), never ever reaching the tolerance out-of 10% hen–go out eggs manufacturing. The reason behind the choice of the Maintenance Center, never to use a rss having laying hens through the this era, is on account of perhaps not pressuring the brand new pullets so you’re able to egg production during the a period that have decreasing temperature and you may photoperiod. The fresh new birds expanded external, less than favourable standards to own skeletal fitness, walking on ground and less than solar power radiation. From the outdoor space for every single reproduce, the presence of yard open to the latest birds are highest while in the brand new broadening several months than just on start of installing, hence took place adopting the summer season, in the event the precipitation was scarce and you may did not support an effective lawn regrowth. Out-of 38 so you can 53 months old, and you can under expanding photoperiod, brand new hens was in fact fed a professional pelleted provide having laying (PG = 16%, Me personally = 11.5 MJ/kg, California = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All of the feeds comprised generally away from maize and you may soybean.

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